Part 1 and Part 2 of this series look at the Vigenère Cipher, how it's created, and how it's used. Part 3 presents an implementation in PHP.

Part 1 of this series looking at the Vigenère cipher covered crerating a Vigenère Square. In this second part we look at using the square to encipher messages, and implementing that method in Javascript.

The Vigenère cipher dates from the sixteenth century, and resisted deciphering for three centuries. In Part One we look at this ancient cipher, build a data model to represent Vigenère square and use it to display a version in the browser.

The sieve of Eratosthenes has been known for centuries, and remains one of the most efficient algorithms for finding prime numbers up to a limit. This article discusses the algorithm, and offers implementations in JavaScript and PHP.

A Byte Order Mark (BOM) can appear at the start of a file to indicate Unicode encoding, which version of Unicode (8, 16, 32) and the endedness (See Byte Order Mark). UTF-8 doesn't require a BOM (since endedness is not an issue for 8-bit encoding), but the presence of a BOM can interfere with code that's not expecting it. Here are some techniques for removing it.